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First Aid For Burns

Burns can be classified as an injury to the skin tissues or muscles due to any corrosive substance, dry heat, hot liquid or any chemical substance. Now at household most of the burn injuries are caused either by hot liquid specially oil or by touching accidently the hot appliances or utensils. Most of the injuries are superficial in nature involving the uppermost layer of the skin and are less dangerous. The commonest first aid for burn is to pour or run cool water over the burned partof body. You should wash the burned part with copious flow of water for 10 to 15 minutes, this will not allow the heat to penetrate deeper into the tissues and there will be less damage.

But the common mistake most of the people do is that they use dry ice to cool the burned part. Putting the ice directly on a burn part may cause the shrinking and constriction of small vessels an venioles resulting in further damage. Always use cool water to treat burn injury. Another important mistake that i have seen in household is the use of tooth paste on injured area. They do not know that these types of materials make a layer over the skin and do not allow the heat to escape from it and cause further injury. So running of water over the burned part is the ideal first aid for burns. In medical field Burn's are generally classified according to the rule of nine. Here's how to distinguish the three different types of burn injuries and how to care for each:
  • Head = 9%
  • Chest (front) = 9%
  • Abdomen (front) = 9%
  • Upper/mid/low back and buttocks = 18%
  • Each arm = 9%
  • Each palm = 1%
  • Groin = 1%
  • Each leg = 18% total (front = 9%, back = 9%)

 
     
 
But it's difficult for any first aid trainee to ascertain it and does not have any importance to give first aid. We in first aid classify it according to the layer of skin involved. Skin has three layers namely epidermis outermost layer, dermis middle layer and hypodermis the innermost layer. If upper most layer is involved it is called first degree burn, the skin becomes red, painful but do not have blisters, if second most layer is involved it is called second degree burn there will be blisters along with redness and swelling. Do not break blisters and pour lot of cool water over it. If third layer is involved than it's called as third degree burn and there is no blister , no pain no swelling, only charred skin and exposed fatty layer will be visible.

If there is third degree burn than immediately activate EMS and transfer the patient to the nearby health facility. For any chemical burn pour the water over it and immediately shift the victim to shower area to wash the clothes from any chemical. Do not touch the victim with bare hands always use gloves. For any chemical spillage in eye use the eye cup to wash the chemical or simply put your eyes beneath the tap and open water slowly to remove it.

You can use SILVER SULPHADIAZINE CREAM and XYLOCAINE cream in equal quantity and apply on the injured part this will have immediate relief.

If burn is severe and involve greater are immediately call the ambulance before starting CPR or first aid. Immediately shift the casualty to hospital.

 
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